عنوان مقاله [English]
The arrival of Muslim conquerors to Egypt has caused many developments in this land. One of these historical developments in Islamic urbanism was the construction of Fustat's city, which is located next to Bab Elion in the northeastern coast of the Nile River. Although Fustat was a temporary city and it had been built momentary tents of Muslim's conquerors, it has been recognized as a permanent and stable city in Egyptian history. Irrespective of the causes of durability and stability of the city, this paper is to answer this question that what were the factors behind the expansion and development of the city of Festus from its first time 20 AH to the Fatimid’s rise (358AH)? Using descriptive and analytical method this study indicates that the following factors were the determining one for the expansion of the Fustat's city: geopolitical location, its vicinity to Babil Elion in the northeast of Egypt, the increasing number of human resources because of the arrival of numerous Arab's tribes and Muslim jihadist forces, and the necessity of their settlement for the continuation of military operations in adjacent territories. The need for establishing a religious and political center in the form of castles and mosques and creating prosperous markets for economic benefit should be added to these factors, as well.