عنوان مقاله [English]
Historical anthropogeographical Books contain valuable information about the social, cultural, and historical aspects of human life. In these documents, Muslim geographers described the social situation, morality, customs, religious and political situation of the people in various regions of Islamic civilization. The descriptions of al-Iṣṭakhrī and al-Maqdisī, two prominent 4th-century Muslim geographers, in mentioning the geographic-historical facts, have been influenced by their ethnic, religious, and political tendencies. This article tries to investigate various cases of such tendencies in a descriptive-analytical way, in order to show that the geographic and historical evidence should always be taken into account cautiously and should never be cited without proper evaluation, refinement, and criticism.